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    What is the definition of a dog in engineering?

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  2. Dog - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogs

    Dog meat is also consumed in some parts of Switzerland. [132] Other cultures, such as Polynesia and pre-Columbian Mexico, also consumed dog meat in their history. Dog fat is also reportedly believed to be beneficial for the lungs in some parts ...

    • Appearance and Behaviour
    • Lifespan
    • Origin of Dogs
    • Dogs and Humans
    • Photogallery

    Dogs have four legs and make a "bark," "woof," or "arf" sound. Dogs often chase cats, and most dogs will fetcha ball or stick. Dogs can smell and hear better than humans, but cannot see well in color because they are color blind. Due to the anatomy of the eye, dogs can see better in dim light than humans. They also have a wider field of vision. Like wolves, wild dogs travel in groups called packs. Packs of dogs are ordered by rank, and dogs with low rank will submit to other dogs with higher rank. The highest ranked dog is called the alpha male. A dog in a group helps and cares for others. Domesticated dogs often view their owner as the alpha male.

    Different dog breeds have different lifespans. In general, smaller dogs live longer than bigger ones. The size and the breed of the dog change how long the dog lives, on average. Breeds such as the Dachshund usually live for fifteen years, Chihuahuas can reach age twenty. The Great Dane, on the other hand has an average lifespan of six to eight years; some Great Danes have lived for ten years.

    All dogs are descended from wolves, by domestication and artificial selection. This is known because DNA genome analysis has been done to discover this. They have been bred by humans. The earliest known fossil of a domestic dog is from 31,700 years ago in Belgium. Dogs have lived with people for at least 30,000 years. In 2013, a study was published that showed that the skull and teeth of a canid, dated to 33,000 years ago, had characteristics closer to a dog than to a wolf, and the authors conclude that "this specimen may represent a dog in the very early stages of domestication, i.e. an “incipient” dog." The researchers go on to suggest that it was, however, a line that did not lead to modern dogs. Genetically, this material is closer to that of a modern dog than to that of a wolf. Other signs of domestication are that sometimes, dogs were buried together with humans. Evidence of this is a tomb in Bonn, where a man of about 50 years of age, a woman of about 25 years of age, the rem...

    Dogs are often called "man's best friend" because they fit in with human life. Man refers to humankind and not just guys (Old English). Dogs can serve people in many ways. For example, there are guard dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs, guide dogs for blind people, and police dogs. There are also dogs that are trained to smell for diseases in the human body or to find bombs or illegal drugs. These dogs sometimes help police in airports or other areas. Sniffer dogs (usually beagles) are sometimes trained for this job. Dogs have even been sent by Russians into outer space, a few years before any human being. The first dog sent up was named Laika, but she died within a few hours. 1. A search and rescue dog searches for victims in the debris of a collapsed building in Tehran 2. Dog herding sheep 3. A guide dog 4. Many dogs are used for hunting 5. Guard dogs in Cameroon

  3. 犬 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書

    zh.wikipedia.org/zh-hk/犬

    犬(學名:Canis lupus familiaris)[1],現代俗稱為狗,一種常見的犬科哺乳動物,與狼為同一種動物,生物學分類上是狼的一個亞種。狗是人類最早馴養的一個物種。有人飼養的稱為家犬,無人飼養的狗稱常被稱為「野狗」或「流浪狗」,可能對環境與其他生物 ...

  4. 犬種列表 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書

    zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/犬種列表

    犬本身在動物分類學中為狼的一個亞種,學名為「Canis lupus familiaris」,因為人類的選育而繁殖出各種各樣的品種。 各種各樣的的犬種 本同地區培育出來的犬種現在約有700-800個,不過,世界犬業聯盟認可的只有337種(正式認可325種,暫時認可12種)。 英文名 ...

  5. Dog breed - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_Breed
    • First Dog Breeds
    • Genetic Evidence
    • Breeds
    • Further Reading

    In 2017, a study showed that 9,000 years ago the domestic dog was present at what is now Zhokhov Island, arctic north-eastern Siberia, which was connected to the mainland at that time. The dogs were selectively bred as either sled dogs or as hunting dogs, which implies that a sled dog standard and a hunting dog standard existed at that time. The optimal maximum size for a sled dog is 20–25 kg (44–55 lb) based on thermo-regulation, and the ancient sled dogs were between 16–25 kg (35–55 lb). The same standard has been found in the remains of sled dogs from this region 2,000 years ago and in the modern Siberian Huskybreed standard. Other dogs were more massive at 30 kg (66 lb) and appear to be dogs that had been crossed with wolves and used for polar-bear hunting. At death, the heads of the dogs had been carefully separated from their bodies by humans, probably for ceremonial reasons. Between 3,000 and 4,000 years ago greyhound-type dogs were depicted on pottery and paintings in Egypt...

    The domestic dog is the first species, and the only large carnivore, to have been domesticated. The first dogs were certainly wolflike, but the phenotypic changes that coincided with the dog–wolf genetic divergence are not known. Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth with around 450 globally recognized dog breeds. In the Victorian era, directed human selection developed the modern dog breeds, which resulted in a vast range of phenotypes. Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years, and since then dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and were formed into today's modern breeds due to artificial selection imposed by humans. These breeds can vary in size and weight from a 0.46 kg (1.0 lb) teacup poodle to a 90 kg (200 lb) giant mastiff. The skull, body, and limb proportions vary significantly between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores. These breeds possess distin...

    Cross-breeds

    A dog crossbreed is the result of mating two different breeds."Designer Dog" became a fad in the late 20th century.

    Mixed-breeds

    A mongrel, mixed-breed dog or mutt is a dog that does not belong to one officially recognized breed but can be a mix of two breeds and is not the result of intentional breeding.

    Natural breeds

    Natural breeds rose through time in response to a particular environment and in isolation from other populations of the species. This environment included humans but with little or no selective breeding by humans. 1. See further: Landraces

    Alderton, David (September 2008). Encyclopedia of Dogs (Hardcover). Bath: Parragon Inc. p. 384. ISBN 978-1407524382.
    Coile, D. Caroline (1 April 2005). Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds: Profiles of More than 150 Breeds (2nd ed.). Barron's Educational Series, Incorporated. p. 368. ISBN 9780764157004.
    De Prisco, Andrew; Johnson, James B. (1993). Canine Lexicon. T. F. H. Publications. p. 886. ISBN 978-3-929545-60-9.
    Kister, Kenneth F. (1994). Kister's Best Encyclopedias (2nd ed.). Phoenix: Oryx. pp. 329–330. ISBN 978-0-89774-744-8.
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  6. Dog - 維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

    zh-yue.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog

    Dog喺英文係狗噉解。重可以係: 維基辭典有呢個詞嘅解釋: dog Dog (專輯):法國樂隊Sow嘅專輯。 碟源集團 ... Wikipedia® 係Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 嘅註冊商標,一個非牟利機構。 私隱政策 關於維基百科 ...

  7. Dog (disambiguation) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_(disambiguation)
    • Animals
    • Places
    • People
    • Science, Astronomy and Engineering
    • Food and Beverages
    • Arts and Entertainment
    • Books
    • Film
    • Television
    • Characters
    Species in the family Canidae called "dogs" as a part of their common name:
    Dog, a malecanine, fox, or wolf as opposed to a bitch, or female dog
    Non-canid, animals, e.g.:

    People with the name

    1. He Dog(1830–1930), an Oglala Sioux leader 2. Mary Crow Dog(1954-2013), a Dakota Sioux author and activist also known as Mary Brave Bird

    People with the alias

    1. Cynic philosopher Diogenes of Sinope 2. Alexandr Dolgopolov, Ukrainian top tennis player 3. Duane Chapman, nicknamed "Dog", the star of Dog: the Bounty Hunter 4. Al Jourgensen, alias "Dog", an industrial musician 5. Doggie (artist), Danish artist

    Dogs (manga), by Shirow Miwa, subtitled "Bullets & Carnage"
    The Dogs, novel by Ivan Nazhivin1931
    Dogs (1976 film), a natural horror film
    The Dogs (1979 film), a French film
    The Dog (1992 film), a short experimental film
    Dog (2001 film), an animated short film by Suzie Templeton
    Dog, a television ident for BBC Two, first aired in 1993 (see BBC Two '1991–2001' idents)
    "The Dog" (Seinfeld), an episode of the television series Seinfeld
    Dogs (TV series), a 2018 Netflix documentary series
    The main character in the comic strip Footrot Flats
    A minor character in the television show Red Dwarf
    Dog (Half-Life 2), from the video game Half-Life 2
  8. Dog (engineering) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_(engineering)

    In engineering, a dog is a tool or part of a tool that prevents movement or imparts movement by offering physical obstruction or engagement of some kind. It may hold another object in place by blocking it, clamping it, or otherwise obstructing ...

  9. Dog (zodiac) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_(zodiac)
    • Years and The Five Elements
    • 2018
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Dog", while also bearing the following elementalsign:

    In the sexagenary cycle, 2018 (16 February 2018–4 February 2019, and every 60-year multiple before and after), is the Celestial stem/Earthly Branch year indicated by the characters 戊戌. For the 2018 Year of the Dog, many countries and regions issued lunar new year stamps. These included countries where the holiday is traditionally observed as well as countries in the Americas, Africa, Europe and Oceania. The U.S.-China Institute at USC created a web collection of more than 100 of these stamps.

    Neil Somerville (2005). Your Chinese Horoscope 2006: What the Year of the Dog Holds for You. p. 367. ISBN 9780007197736.

  10. Raccoon dog - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raccoon_dog
    • Description
    • Ecology
    • Behavior
    • Expanded Range and Invasive Species
    • Diseases and parasites
    • Relationships with Humans
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Raccoon dog skulls greatly resemble those of South American foxes, particularly crab-eating foxes, though genetic studies reveal they are not closely related. Their skulls are small, but sturdily built and moderately elongated, with narrow zygomatic arches. The projections of the skull are well-developed, the sagittal crestbeing particularly prominent in old animals. Reflecting their omnivorous diets, raccoon dogs have small and weak canines and carnassials, flat molars, and relatively long intestines – (1.5–2.0 times longer than other canids). They have long torsos and short legs. Total lengths can range from 45 to 71 cm (18 to 28 in). The tail, at 12 to 18 cm (4.7 to 7.1 in) long, is short, amounting to less than a third of the animal's total length and hangs below the tarsal jointswithout touching the ground. The ears are short and protrude only slightly from the fur. Weights fluctuate according to season: in March they weigh 3 kg (6.6 lb), while in August to early September male...

    Diet

    Raccoon dogs are omnivores that feed on insects, rodents, amphibians, birds, fish, reptiles, mollusks, carrion, and insectivores, as well as fruits, nuts, and berries. Among the rodents targeted by raccoon dogs, voles seem to predominate in swampy areas, but are replaced with gerbils in flatland areas such as Astrakhan. Frogs are the most commonly taken amphibians; in the Voronezh region, they frequently eat fire-bellied toads, while European spadefoot toads are usually taken in Ukraine. Racc...

    Predators

    Wolves are the main predators of raccoon dogs, killing large numbers of them in spring and summer, though attacks have been reported in autumn too. In Tatarstan, wolf predation can account for 55.6% of raccoon dog deaths, while in northwestern Russia, it amounts to 64%. Red foxeskill raccoon dog pups, and have been known to bite adults to death. Both foxes and Eurasian badgers compete with raccoon dogs for food, and have been known to kill them if raccoon dogs enter their burrows. Eurasian ly...

    Reproduction and development

    The mating season begins from early February to late April, depending on location. Raccoon dogs are monogamous animals, with pair formations usually occurring in autumn. Captive males, however, have been known to mate with four or five females. Males will fight briefly, but not fatally, for mates. Copulation occurs during the night or dawn and typically will last 6–9 minutes. Estruslasts from a few hours to six days, during which females may mate up to five times. Females enter estrus again a...

    Hibernation

    Raccoon dogs are the only canids known to hibernate. In early winter, they increase their subcutaneous fat by 18–23% and their internal fat by 3–5%. Animals failing to reach these fat levels usually do not survive the winter. During their hibernation, their metabolism decreases by 25%. In areas such as Primorsky Kraiand their introduced range, raccoon dogs hibernate only during severe snowstorms. In December, their physical activity decreases once snow depth reaches 15–20 cm, and limit the ra...

    Vocalizations

    Like foxes, they do not bark, uttering instead a growl, followed by a long-drawn, melancholy whine. Captive specimens have been known to utter daily a very different kind of sound when hungry, described as a sort of mewing plaint.[failed verification] Males fighting for females may yelp and growl.Japanese raccoon dogs produce sounds higher in pitch than those of domestic dogs, and sound similar to cats.

    From 1928 to 1958, 10,000 raccoon dogs of the N. p. ussuriensis subspecies were introduced in 76 districts, territories, and republics of the Soviet Union in an attempt to improve their fur quality. Primor'e in the Russian Far East was the first region to be colonised, with individuals being transplanted from islands in the Sea of Japan. By 1934, raccoon dogs were introduced into Altai, the northern Caucasus, Armenia, Kirgizia, Tatarstan, Kalinin, Penza, and Orenburg regions. In the following year, they were further introduced into Leningradsky, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, and Bashkortostan. Raccoon dogs in Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Trans-Baikaliya, and Altai did not fare well, due to harsh winters and scarce food. Raccoon dogs also fared badly in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Moldova. However, successful introductions occurred in the Baltic states, European Russia (particularly in Kalinin, Novgorod, Pskov, and Smolensk regions), in central Russia (Moscow, Yarosl...

    Coronaviruses

    A virus similar to SARS-CoV was isolated from Himalayan palm civets (Paguma larvata), a raccoon dog, and humans working in a live-animal market in Guangdong, Chinain May 2003. Raccoon dogs, as well as masked palm civets, were originally believed to be the natural reservoirs of severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus. However, genetic analysis has since convinced most experts that bats are the natural hosts. Raccoon dogs were most likely only transient accidental hosts. According...

    Other viruses

    The introduction of the raccoon dog to Europe is thought to have brought with it infected ticks that introduced the Asian tick-borne meningoencephalitisvirus. Cases of raccoon dogs carrying rabies are known from the lower Volga, Voronezh, and Lithuania.[citation needed] Canine distemper occurs in raccoon dogs inhabiting the northern Caucasus.[citation needed]

    Bacteria

    Captive raccoon dogs in Soviet state animal farms were recorded to carry paratyphoid, anthrax, and tuberculosis.[citation needed]

    Game and crop damage

    Raccoon dogs are harmful to game bird populations, particularly in floodlands and the shorelines of estuaries, where they feed almost exclusively on eggs and chicks during the spring period. Birds amount to 15–20% of their diets in Lithuania, 46% on the Oka River floodlands, and 48.6% in the Voronezh Reserve. They are also harmful to the muskrat trade, destroying their nests and eating their young. In Ukraine, raccoon dogs are harmful to kitchen gardens, melon cultivations, vineyards, and cor...

    Hunting

    Raccoon dogs are typically hunted from November until the snow deepens. In the Far East, they are hunted at night using Laikas and mongrels. In the 19th century, the Goldi and Oroch people fastened bells to the collars of their raccoon dog hounds. In their introduced range, raccoon dogs are usually caught incidentally during hunts for other species. Hunting with dogsis the most efficient method in raccoon dog hunts, having success rates of 80–90%, as opposed to 8–10% with guns and 5–7% with t...

    Fur use

    When used on clothing, the fur of the raccoon dog is often called "murmansky" or "tanuki" fur. In the United States, it is marketed as "Asiatic raccoon", and in Northern Europe as "Finn raccoon". Generally, the quality of the pelt is based on the silkiness of the fur, as its physical appeal depends upon the guard hairs being erect, which is only possible in silkier furs. Small raccoon dog pelts with silky fur command higher prices than large, coarse-furred ones. Due to their long and coarse g...

    Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Raccoon-dog" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 22 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 774.

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