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  1. 哈馬斯 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書

    zh.wikipedia.org › zh-tw › 哈马斯

    哈馬斯原為巴勒斯坦 穆斯林兄弟會的一個分支,影響力很小,由於注重在中下層群眾中發展成員,在清真寺、醫院、學校等場合宣傳自己的政治主張而漸漸獲得深厚的群眾基礎。 1987年12月14日,正當巴勒斯坦被占領土爆發「石頭起義」之時,其宗教領導人謝赫·艾哈邁德·亞 ...

  2. 哈馬斯 - 維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

    zh-yue.wikipedia.org › wiki › 哈馬斯

    哈馬斯(حركة المقاومة الاسلامية ,伊斯蘭抵抗者組織)係一個由遜尼派巴勒斯坦人組成嘅政黨,1987年成立。佢哋唔承認有猶太嘅以色列存在、堅決唔贊成和解,堅持要以武裝鬥爭嚟達到恢復巴勒斯坦國嘅既定目標。 [1] [2] 自從2007年加沙之戰以嚟哈馬斯事實上控制咗成 ...

  3. 哈馬斯歷史 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

    zh.wikipedia.org › wiki › 哈馬斯歷史

    2007年6月,哈馬斯與法塔赫之間爆發了新的衝突。 在2007年6月的加沙之戰中,哈馬斯利用巴勒斯坦權力機構在加沙的幾乎全部瓦解,接管了對加沙的控制 [50],驅逐了法塔赫官員。 馬哈茂德·阿巴斯總統隨後解散了由哈馬斯領導的巴勒斯坦政府 [51],並宣布哈馬斯為非法組 ...

  4. History of Hamas - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Hamas
    • Early Islamic Activism in Gaza
    • 1987 – The Founding of Hamas
    • The 1990s
    • The Second Intifada
    • 2004 – Negotiation Attempts
    • 2005 – Israel's Unilateral Disengagement Plan
    • January 2006 – Winning The Legislative Election
    • Brief Timeline
    • See Also

    With its takeover of Gaza after the 1967 war with Egypt, Israel hunted down secular Palestinian Liberation Organization factions, but dropped the previous Egyptian rulers' harsh restrictions against Islamic activists.In fact, Israel for many years tolerated and at times encouraged Islamic activists and groups as a counterweight to the secular nationalists of the PLO and its dominant faction, Fatah. Among the activists benefited was Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood in Gaza, who had also formed the Islamist group Mujama al-Islamiya, a charity recognized by Israel in 1979. Israel allowed the organization to build mosques, clubs, schools, and a library in Gaza. Yitzhak Segev, the acting governor of Gaza in 1979, said he had no illusions about Yassin's intentions, having watched an Islamist movement topple the Shah as Israel's military attache in Iran. However, according to Segev, Yassin and his charity were "100% peaceful" towards Israel during this time, and Segev...

    In 1987, several Palestinians were killed in a traffic accident involving an Israeli driver, and the events that followed–a Palestinian uprising against Israel's West Bank and Gaza occupation–led Yassin and six other Palestinians to found Hamas as an offshoot of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood. The new group was supported by Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had already gained a strong foothold in the occupied territories. The acronym "Hamas" first appeared in 1987 in a leaflet that accused the Israeli intelligence services of undermining the moral fiber of Palestinian youth as part of Mossad's recruitment of what Hamas termed "collaborators." Nonetheless, Israeli military and intelligence was still focused on Fatah, and continued to maintain contacts with Gaza Islamic activists. Numerous Islamist leaders, including senior Hamas founder Mahmoud Zahar, met with Yitzhak Rabinas part of "regular consultations" between Israeli officials and Palestinians not linked...

    Hamas's military branch, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was created in 1991. Although the Brigades are an integral part of Hamas, they operate independently, and at times contrary to Hamas policy. During the 1990s the al-Qassam Brigades conducted numerous attacks against civilians and the Israeli military. From April 1993 these included suicide bombings, for which Hamas became well known internationally. A major motivation for Hamas's decision to use suicide attacks as its primary modus operandi was the February 1994 massacre by Baruch Goldstein of 30 Muslims in a Hebron mosque. The Brigades' Yahya Ayash who may have masterminded most of the early suicide attacks, was killed by the Israeli secret servicein early 1996. In December 1992 Israel responded to the killing of a border police officer by deporting 415 leading figures of Hamas and Islamic Jihadto Lebanon, which provoked international condemnation and a unanimous UN Security Council resolution condemning the action. Althou...

    Al-Qassam Brigades militants were among the armed groups that launched both military-style attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli civilian and military targets during the Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الأقصى‎, Intifāḍat El Aqṣa; Hebrew: אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה‎, Intifādat El-Aqtzah), which began in late September 2000. This Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the occupied territories was much more violent than the First Intifada. The military and civilian death toll was estimated at 5,500 Palestinians, more than 1,100 Israelis, and 64 foreigners.A 2007 study of Palestinian suicide bombings during the Second Intifada (September 2000 through August 2005) found that about 40 percent were carried out by the al-Qassam Brigades. The immediate trigger for the Second Intifada is disputed, but a more general cause, writes U.S. political science professor Jeremy Pressman, was "popular Palestinian discontent [that] grew during the Oslo peace proc...

    In January 2004, Hamas leader Yassin said that the group would end armed resistance against Israel in exchange for a Palestinian state in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, and that restoring Palestinians' "historical rights" (relating to the 1948 Palestinian exodus) "would be left for future generations." On January 25, 2004, senior Hamas official Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi offered a 10-year truce, or hudna, in return for the establishment of a Palestinian state and the complete withdrawal by Israel from the territories captured in the 1967 Six-Day War. Al-Rantissi stated that Hamas had come to the conclusion that it was "difficult to liberate all our land at this stage, so we accept a phased liberation." Israel immediately dismissed al-Rantissi's statements as insincere and a smokescreen for military preparations. Yassin was killed in a targeted killing on March 22, 2004, by an Israeli air strike,and al-Rantisi was killed by a similar air strike on April 18,...

    In 2004, in a prelude to Israel's unilateral disengagement plan from the Gaza Strip, Israeli forces carried out a number of military attacks targeted at militants in Gaza cities and refugees camps, seeking to draw out and kill Hamas-affiliated gunmen. Awareness of high casualties during such incursions led the Hamas leadership to instruct its activists to avoid putting themselves needlessly in the line of fire. On September 12, 2005, IDF withdrew from the Gaza Strip and declared an official end to Israeli military rule in Gaza, though Israel still retained control of the airspace and of the sea. However, the Palestinian Authority argued that the occupation was on-going, as complete sovereigntyincludes control of both airspace and seaways. The Gaza Strip was called a "lawless open-air prison". Hamas claimed that this unilateral withdrawal was a victory for its armed struggle and pledged to liberate all the occupied territories, including the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Fatah, on th...

    While Hamas had boycotted the January 2005 presidential election, during which Mahmoud Abbas was elected to replace Yasser Arafat, it did participate in the municipal elections held between January and May 2005, in which it took control of Beit Lahia and Rafah in the Gaza Strip and Qalqilyah in the West Bank. The January 2006 legislative elections marked another victory for Hamas, which gained the majority of seats, defeating the ruling Fatahparty. The "List of Change and Reform", as Hamas presented itself, obtained 42.9% of the vote and 74 of the 132 seats.

    1984 Arrest of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, sentenced to 12 years of prison after the discovery of an arms cache. Yassin is freed the next year.
    1987 Creation of Hamas by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin.
    1987–1993 First Intifada.
    1988 Hamas Covenant.
  5. 哈貝馬斯的溝通理性 - MBA智库百科

    wiki.mbalib.com › zh-tw › 哈贝马斯的沟通理性

    6/2/2017 · 馬斯溝通理性的提出是針對歷史上傳統的目的理性而言的。在尤爾根·馬斯(Jürgen Habermas)看來,目的理性著眼於社會行為中如何以手段滿足其目的之部分。因此,對人的理解集中在個人如何利用外界的資源滿足個人的目的之層面上;而人與人之間的溝通亦主要被 ...

  6. 加沙之戰 (2007年) - 維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

    zh-yue.wikipedia.org › wiki › 加沙之戰_(2007年)
    • 背景
    • 襲擊
    • 政治後果
    • 國際態度
    • 參考

    6月10號,哈馬斯武裝分子挾持咗幾個法塔克成員,將其中一個叫Mohammed Sweirki,係巴勒斯坦總統侍衛嘅,由加沙最高嘅嗰座樓,一間15層樓高嘅住宅大廈,掟咗落街。法塔克嘅武裝分子為咗報復,殺咗一間寺嘅負責人Mohammed al-Rifati。佢哋又向首相Ismail Haniya嘅住所開火。啱啱好半夜之前,有個哈馬斯嘅武裝分子俾人由間12層樓高嘅大廈掟咗落街。 喺6月11號,法塔克嘅領導人同埋巴勒斯坦自治政府主席阿巴斯,同埋當時嘅哈馬斯首相Ismail Haniya嘅屋企俾槍同埋炸彈襲擊。

    喺6月12號哈馬斯開始攻擊俾法塔克分子佔領嘅據點。幾百個哈馬斯武裝分子畀咗兩個鐘頭期限嗰啲喺裏面嘅人,然後就佔領嗰啲地方。 有個目擊者同法新社講話,一個喺北面嘅法塔克基地叫做Jabaliya嘅城市俾哈馬斯佔領咗。喺加沙市法塔克總部周圍發生咗嚴重嘅械鬥,哈馬斯嘅武裝分子重用火箭炮同埋自動武器嚟打。 喺6月13號,哈馬斯攞咗加沙北部原本係法塔克控制嘅國家安全部。槍手想攞高樓大廈嚟做據點,而哈馬斯就話佢哋已經消滅咗一個喺加沙南北向嘅大路上面嘅一個法塔克據點。喺同一日,同法塔克有聯繫嘅預防性保安部隊總部俾人炸咗,死咗五個人。 喺6月14號,哈馬斯槍手終於攞咗加沙地帶巴勒斯坦預防性保安總部嘅中央大樓。哈馬斯嘅成員攞晒嗰度俾人視為係巴勒斯坦自治政府喺加沙嘅象徵嘅車同埋武器。預防性保安部隊曾經同以色列合作,象徵人物係法塔克嘅Mohammed Dahlan。入去嘅槍手喺嗰度祈禱,然後喺屋頂揮旗。至少10個人死咗。哈馬斯嘅電視台展示咗大廈裏面嘅武器,另加有喺嗰度搵到嘅吉普車、炸彈同埋避彈衣。根據哈馬斯所講,呢啲嘢係喺呢幾個月以嚟以色列同埋美國由埃及偷運入去嘅。 哈馬斯嘅成員喺佢哋叫做「謬論建築群」嗰度祈禱。哈馬斯亦都將附近原本叫做「Tel al-Hawa」嘅地方改名做「Tel al-Islam」。 喺6月14號下晝,美聯社報道話加沙市有爆炸。法塔克嘅官員話係保安部隊由崗位撤走然後炸咗個地方,費事俾哈馬斯攞咗。保安部隊之後去咗第二啲地方駐守。同一日哈馬斯控制咗另一個喺加沙地帶南部嘅,俾以色列、巴勒斯坦同埋歐盟保安部隊監察嘅城市拉法。歐盟嘅人事前已經因為安全理由撤走去以色列嘅Ashkelon。

    巴勒斯坦自治政府主席阿巴斯宣佈解散國會同埋進入緊急狀態。巴勒斯坦自治政府首相Ismail Haniya俾人炒,重有阿巴斯透過主席命令統治加沙同埋西岸地區。哈馬斯發言人Sami Abu Zuhri回應話阿巴斯嘅決定係「以習慣上嚟講…唔值得」,認為Haniya就算主席炒佢都重係政府嘅阿頭」。 就咁樣巴勒斯坦自治區自動俾人分做兩部分:俾哈馬斯控制嘅加沙地帶同埋法塔克管嘅西岸。

    美國、歐盟同埋以色列,普遍支持實際控制西岸嘅巴勒斯坦自治政府。喺6月18號,美國同歐盟分別宣布,同巴勒斯坦自治政府恢復正常關係,同埋經濟援助,以色列叫巴勒斯坦自治政府做「夥伴」,而且已經將哈馬斯上台嗰陣凍結嘅關稅,全部交番畀巴勒斯坦自治政府。

    ↑ Article 互聯網檔案館嘅歸檔,歸檔日期2007年6月11號,. in The Australian, CNN article
    ↑ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3412813,00.html
    ↑ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3412813,00.html
    ↑ update, cnn.com
  7. Mohammad Taha (Hamas) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Mohammad_Taha_(Hamas)

    Mohammad Taha (Arabic: محمد طه ) is a co-founding member of the Palestinian military group Hamas, who was arrested by the IDF in 2003. On May 5, 2004, after being held 14 months without trial, the 68-year-old Taha was released back to Gaza. His ...

  8. 哈貝馬斯的公共領域理論 - MBA智库百科

    wiki.mbalib.com › zh-tw › 哈贝马斯的公共领域理论

    馬斯的公共領域理論,是以18世紀歐洲——主要是法國、英國和德國的歷史為背景,所得出的一個馬克斯·韋伯式的理想類型。他分析了18世紀資產階級社會中出現的俱樂部、咖啡館、沙龍、雜誌和報紙,是一個公眾們討論公共問題、自由交往的公共領域,它形成了政治權威重 ...

  9. 哈维尔·马斯切拉诺 - Wiki

    zh.wikiredia.com › wiki › 馬斯查蘭奴

    维尔·亚利杭德罗·马斯切拉诺(西班牙語: Javier Alejandro Mascherano,1984年6月8日 - ),是一名阿根廷足球運動員,世界足壇最佳阿根廷巨星之一。 司職防守中場與中堅,曾效力西甲球會巴塞罗那。馬斯切拉諾的上代是意大利移民,因此他擁有意大利護照 [2]。 ...

  10. 22/5/2021 · (大馬士革哈馬斯支持者 圖:Wiki ) 如果要打破僵局,那麼推動哈馬斯與法塔赫的和解進程自然是選擇之一。2017年,雙方在埃及的協調下於開羅簽訂和解協議,但該協議的落實情況卻並不樂觀,包括舉行大選在內的進程遲遲得不到推進,以致於 ...

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