雅虎香港 搜尋

  1. 哈馬斯 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書

    zh.wikipedia.org › zh-tw › 哈马斯

    22/3/2004 · 哈馬斯原為巴勒斯坦 穆斯林兄弟會的一個分支,影響力很小,由於注重在中下層群眾中發展成員,在清真寺、醫院、學校等場合宣傳自己的政治主張而漸漸獲得深厚的群眾基礎。 1987年12月14日,正當巴勒斯坦被占領土爆發「石頭起義」之時,其宗教領導人謝赫·艾哈邁德·亞 ...

  2. 哈馬斯歷史 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

    zh.wikipedia.org › wiki › 哈馬斯歷史

    2007年6月,哈馬斯與法塔赫之間爆發了新的衝突。 在2007年6月的加沙之戰中,哈馬斯利用巴勒斯坦權力機構在加沙的幾乎全部瓦解,接管了對加沙的控制 [50],驅逐了法塔赫官員。 馬哈茂德·阿巴斯總統隨後解散了由哈馬斯領導的巴勒斯坦政府 [51],並宣布哈馬斯為非法組 ...

  3. 哈馬斯 - 維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

    zh-yue.wikipedia.org › wiki › 哈馬斯

    哈馬斯(حركة المقاومة الاسلامية ,伊斯蘭抵抗者組織)係一個由遜尼派巴勒斯坦人組成嘅政黨,1987年成立。佢哋唔承認有猶太嘅以色列存在、堅決唔贊成和解,堅持要以武裝鬥爭嚟達到恢復巴勒斯坦國嘅既定目標。 [1] [2] 自從2007年加沙之戰以嚟哈馬斯事實上控制咗成 ...

  4. Hamas - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hamas

    Hamas is an acronym of the Arabic phrase حركة المقاومة الإسلامية or Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah, meaning "Islamic Resistance Movement". This acronym, HMS, was later glossed in the Hamas Covenant by the Arabic word ḥamās ( حماس) ...

  5. History of Hamas - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Hamas
    • Early Islamic Activism in Gaza
    • 1987 – The Founding of Hamas
    • The 1990s
    • The Second Intifada
    • 2004 – Negotiation Attempts
    • 2005 – Israel's Unilateral Disengagement Plan
    • January 2006 – Winning The Legislative Election
    • Brief Timeline
    • See Also

    With its takeover of Gaza after the 1967 war with Egypt, Israel hunted down secular Palestinian Liberation Organization factions, but dropped the previous Egyptian rulers' harsh restrictions against Islamic activists.In fact, Israel for many years tolerated and at times encouraged Islamic activists and groups as a counterweight to the secular nationalists of the PLO and its dominant faction, Fatah. Among the activists benefited was Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood in Gaza, who had also formed the Islamist group Mujama al-Islamiya, a charity recognized by Israel in 1979. Israel allowed the organization to build mosques, clubs, schools, and a library in Gaza. Yitzhak Segev, the acting governor of Gaza in 1979, said he had no illusions about Yassin's intentions, having watched an Islamist movement topple the Shah as Israel's military attache in Iran. However, according to Segev, Yassin and his charity were "100% peaceful" towards Israel during this time, and Segev...

    In 1987, several Palestinians were killed in a traffic accident involving an Israeli driver, and the events that followed–a Palestinian uprising against Israel's West Bank and Gaza occupation–led Yassin and six other Palestinians to found Hamas as an offshoot of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood. The new group was supported by Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had already gained a strong foothold in the occupied territories. The acronym "Hamas" first appeared in 1987 in a leaflet that accused the Israeli intelligence services of undermining the moral fiber of Palestinian youth as part of Mossad's recruitment of what Hamas termed "collaborators." Nonetheless, Israeli military and intelligence was still focused on Fatah, and continued to maintain contacts with Gaza Islamic activists. Numerous Islamist leaders, including senior Hamas founder Mahmoud Zahar, met with Yitzhak Rabinas part of "regular consultations" between Israeli officials and Palestinians not linked...

    Hamas's military branch, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was created in 1991. Although the Brigades are an integral part of Hamas, they operate independently, and at times contrary to Hamas policy. During the 1990s the al-Qassam Brigades conducted numerous attacks against civilians and the Israeli military. From April 1993 these included suicide bombings, for which Hamas became well known internationally. A major motivation for Hamas's decision to use suicide attacks as its primary modus operandi was the February 1994 massacre by Baruch Goldstein of 30 Muslims in a Hebron mosque. The Brigades' Yahya Ayash who may have masterminded most of the early suicide attacks, was killed by the Israeli secret servicein early 1996. In December 1992 Israel responded to the killing of a border police officer by deporting 415 leading figures of Hamas and Islamic Jihadto Lebanon, which provoked international condemnation and a unanimous UN Security Council resolution condemning the action. Althou...

    Al-Qassam Brigades militants were among the armed groups that launched both military-style attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli civilian and military targets during the Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الأقصى‎, Intifāḍat El Aqṣa; Hebrew: אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה‎, Intifādat El-Aqtzah), which began in late September 2000. This Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the occupied territories was much more violent than the First Intifada. The military and civilian death toll was estimated at 5,500 Palestinians, more than 1,100 Israelis, and 64 foreigners.A 2007 study of Palestinian suicide bombings during the Second Intifada (September 2000 through August 2005) found that about 40 percent were carried out by the al-Qassam Brigades. The immediate trigger for the Second Intifada is disputed, but a more general cause, writes U.S. political science professor Jeremy Pressman, was "popular Palestinian discontent [that] grew during the Oslo peace proc...

    In January 2004, Hamas leader Yassin said that the group would end armed resistance against Israel in exchange for a Palestinian state in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, and that restoring Palestinians' "historical rights" (relating to the 1948 Palestinian exodus) "would be left for future generations." On January 25, 2004, senior Hamas official Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi offered a 10-year truce, or hudna, in return for the establishment of a Palestinian state and the complete withdrawal by Israel from the territories captured in the 1967 Six-Day War. Al-Rantissi stated that Hamas had come to the conclusion that it was "difficult to liberate all our land at this stage, so we accept a phased liberation." Israel immediately dismissed al-Rantissi's statements as insincere and a smokescreen for military preparations. Yassin was killed in a targeted killing on March 22, 2004, by an Israeli air strike,and al-Rantisi was killed by a similar air strike on April 18,...

    In 2004, in a prelude to Israel's unilateral disengagement plan from the Gaza Strip, Israeli forces carried out a number of military attacks targeted at militants in Gaza cities and refugees camps, seeking to draw out and kill Hamas-affiliated gunmen. Awareness of high casualties during such incursions led the Hamas leadership to instruct its activists to avoid putting themselves needlessly in the line of fire. On September 12, 2005, IDF withdrew from the Gaza Strip and declared an official end to Israeli military rule in Gaza, though Israel still retained control of the airspace and of the sea. However, the Palestinian Authority argued that the occupation was on-going, as complete sovereigntyincludes control of both airspace and seaways. The Gaza Strip was called a "lawless open-air prison". Hamas claimed that this unilateral withdrawal was a victory for its armed struggle and pledged to liberate all the occupied territories, including the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Fatah, on th...

    While Hamas had boycotted the January 2005 presidential election, during which Mahmoud Abbas was elected to replace Yasser Arafat, it did participate in the municipal elections held between January and May 2005, in which it took control of Beit Lahia and Rafah in the Gaza Strip and Qalqilyah in the West Bank. The January 2006 legislative elections marked another victory for Hamas, which gained the majority of seats, defeating the ruling Fatahparty. The "List of Change and Reform", as Hamas presented itself, obtained 42.9% of the vote and 74 of the 132 seats.

    1984 Arrest of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, sentenced to 12 years of prison after the discovery of an arms cache. Yassin is freed the next year.
    1987 Creation of Hamas by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin.
    1987–1993 First Intifada.
    1988 Hamas Covenant.
  6. 尤尔根·哈贝马斯 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

    zh.wikipedia.org › wiki › 尤尔根·哈贝马斯
    • 生平
    • 知識旨趣與社會實踐
    • 溝通行為理論
    • 學術與社會參與
    • 研究書目
    • 外部链接

    哈伯马斯1929年6月18日生于威瑪共和國的杜塞道夫一個中產家庭。他的家人識時務地適應了納粹政權,但也談不上擁護。他的政治觀點形成於1945年,他十六歲時。這時二戰行將結束,他和大多同齡的青年一樣加入了希特勒青年團。戰後,他在觀看了納粹屠殺猶太人的紀錄片後,遠離了納粹主義。青年時代,他在哥廷根大學、蘇黎世大學和波恩大學學習。1953年,他大量閱讀海德格的著作,但很快與之決裂。1954年,憑藉研究謝林的論文獲得博士學位。之後,他轉向了馬爾庫塞和青年馬克思的研究。兩年後,他在法蘭克福的社會科學研究院工作,做阿多諾的助手。1958年,離開法蘭克福去了馬堡大學,後來到了海德堡大學做哲學教授。1964年回到法蘭克福大學任教。他在60年代整體對學生運動感到同情,但他也反對學生摒棄所有權威的態度。1971年到1983年,他都在施塔恩貝格的馬克斯·普朗克研究院當院長。1983再度回到法蘭克福大學。 因為天生患有唇顎裂(俗稱兔唇),童年時曾兩度接受矯形手術;亦因為這個先天缺陷的關係,使他無法清楚咬字,並嚴重影響到他的社交生活。哈伯瑪斯認為,他的語言障礙使得他以不同方式去思考溝通的重要性,並且喜歡上以書寫口語作為溝通媒介。

    哈伯马斯在知识论上的主張是:任何一个认识都起源于旨趣(knowledge interest)。他提出人类旨趣的三种类型: 1. 「经验─分析的科学研究」包含技术的认知旨趣 2. 「历史-解释学的科学研究」包含实践的认知旨趣 3. 具有批判倾向的科学(critically oriented)的研究,包含解放的认知旨趣 這些旨趣的整理分梳試圖解決啓蒙運動以來工具理性(instrumental rationality)之流弊,為左派批判思想找尋有別於後現代運動對理性棄如敝屣的態度。

    真實性(Truth)
    理解性(comprehensibility)
    真誠(Truthfulness)
    公正(rightness)

    1999年德国决定出兵科索沃,哈伯马斯发表长篇文章,从政治伦理角度支持约施卡·菲舍尔和这个违背绿党政纲的出兵决定。2003年4~5月间,哈伯马斯两次发表声明,反对伊拉克战争并支持加速欧洲一体化。 哈伯马斯于2001年4月访华,在北京和上海两地做了题为《全球化压力下的欧洲民族国家》等一系列的演讲,在中国学术界反响巨大。

    阮新邦:《批判詮釋與知識重建:哈伯瑪斯視野下的社會研究》(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,1999年).
    陳曉林:《學術巨人與理性困境——韋伯、巴柏、哈伯瑪斯》(臺北:時報出版公司,1987年).
    現代理性困境與救贖 ,哈伯馬斯對西方理性主義的重建 (页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)
    陳弘毅:〈从哈貝馬斯的哲學看現代性與現代法治〉 (页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)(2013)
    劉擎:〈現代性的哲學話語:哈貝馬斯的思想史視野〉 (页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)(2006)
  7. 哈貝馬斯的溝通理性 - MBA智库百科

    wiki.mbalib.com › zh-tw › 哈贝马斯的沟通理性

    6/2/2017 · 馬斯溝通理性的提出是針對歷史上傳統的目的理性而言的。在尤爾根·馬斯(Jürgen Habermas)看來,目的理性著眼於社會行為中如何以手段滿足其目的之部分。因此,對人的理解集中在個人如何利用外界的資源滿足個人的目的之層面上;而人與人之間的溝通亦主要被 ...

  8. 尤爾根·哈貝馬斯 - MBA智库百科

    wiki.mbalib.com › zh-tw › 尤尔根·哈贝马斯

    19/9/2016 · 尤爾根·馬斯(Jürgen Habermas)尤爾根·馬斯(Jürgen Habermas,1929年6月18日-),是德國當代最重要的哲學家、社會理論家之一。1929年生於杜塞多夫,歷任海德堡大學教授、法蘭克福大學教授、法蘭克福大學社會研究所所長以及德國馬普協會生活世界研究所所 ...

  9. 22/5/2021 · (大馬士革哈馬斯支持者 圖:Wiki ) 如果要打破僵局,那麼推動哈馬斯與法塔赫的和解進程自然是選擇之一。2017年,雙方在埃及的協調下於開羅簽訂和解協議,但該協議的落實情況卻並不樂觀,包括舉行大選在內的進程遲遲得不到推進,以致於 ...

  10. 阿斯兰·马斯哈多夫 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

    zh.wikipedia.org › wiki › 阿斯兰·马斯哈多夫

    阿斯兰·阿利耶维奇·马斯多夫(車臣語: Аслан Али кант Масхадан,羅馬化:Aslan Ali kant Masxadaŋ,俄語: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов,1951年9月21日-2005年3月8日),伊奇克里亚车臣共和国前总统,武装部队主要领导人之一。 生平 马斯多夫出生于哈萨克境内的 ...

  1. 相關搜尋

    哈馬斯