雅虎香港 搜尋

    • Image courtesy of commons.wikimedia.org

      圖片: commons.wikimedia.org

      • Constitutional monarchy From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A Constitutional Monarchy is a form of government, in which a king or queen is the official head of state, although their powers are limited by a constitution and often lack much real power, as the legislative branch is the primary governing body.
      simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy
  1. 其他人也問了

    What kind of government does a constitutional monarchy have?

    How is a constitutional monarchy different from an absoloute monarchy?

    Who is the head of State in a monarchy?

    Is the United Kingdom an elective or constitutional monarchy?

  2. Constitutional monarchy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constitutional_monarchy

    A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. [1] Constitutional monarchies differ from absolute m ...

  3. Constitutional monarchy - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constitutional_monarchy

    Constitutional monarchy. A Constitutional Monarchy is a form of government, in which a king or queen is the official head of state, although their powers are limited by a constitution and often lack much real power, as the legislative branch is ...

    State
    Last Constitution Established
    Type Of Monarchy
    Monarch Selection
    1981
    Kingdom
    Hereditary succession.
    1993
    Selection of Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell ...
    1901
    Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary ...
    Hereditary succession.
    1973
    Kingdom
    Hereditary succession.
  4. 君主立憲制 - 維基百科,自由的百科全書

    zh.wikipedia.org › zh-tw › Constitutional_monarchy

    君主立憲制(英語: Constitutional monarchy )或有限君主制、共和式君主制、虛君共和制或民主式君主制,是相對於君主專制的一種國家體制。 君主立憲是在保留君主制的前提下,通過立憲,樹立人民主權、限制君主權力、達成實務事實上的共和主義或民主主義理想。 ...

  5. Constitutional monarchy - Wikipedia

    sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constitutional_monarchy

    Constitutional monarchy. A kintra wi a pairlament or leemitit monarchy is a form o govrenment staiblished unner a constitutional seestem that haes an electit or hereditar monarch as heid o state, as contrair tae an absolute monarchy, whaur the m ...

  6. Constitutional monarchy — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Constitutional_monarchy

    15/3/2021 · Constitutional monarchy. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better. As originally conceived, a constitutional monarch was head of the executive branch and quite a powerful figure even though his or her power was limited by the constitution and the ...

  7. Monarchy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Monarchy

    A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication.The political legitimacy and authority of the monarch may vary from restricted and largely symbolic (constitutional monarchy), to fu ...

  8. Monarchy of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Monarchy_of_the_United_Kingdom

    The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional form of government by which a hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United Kingdom, its dependencies (the Bailiwick of ...

  9. Monarchy - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Federal_constitutional_monarchy
    • History
    • Kinds of Monarchical Powers
    • Succession
    • Related Pages

    Monarchy is one of the oldest kinds of government. Most historians agree that the first monarchies were tribes or small groups of people who decided to let a war-chief or other leader pass on their office to their children. This created a dynasty. Over time, the rules for deciding who got to become the next monarch became more complicated. Primogenitureis usual. The oldest son or, in some countries, daughter, becomes the next monarch when the old one dies. Kings and other kinds of monarchs have ruled for many thousands of years; for example, many kings are mentioned in the Bible and in ancient historical records. Three of the oldest countries with monarchs that still hold office are the United Kingdom, which has had the same British Royal Family for nearly 1,000 years, Denmark where the royal line has remained unbroken for almost 1,200 years, and Japan, which has records showing a line of Emperors dating back even farther. Many monarchs today perform mostly the ceremonial jobs of a...

    Absolute monarchy

    In an absolute monarchy the monarch is the only source of all laws. The monarch has total power to make any law just by deciding it. Any other institution in the country cannot make laws that affect the monarch, unless the monarch decides to allow it. Sometimes the monarch is also the head of the state religion and makes religious laws also. All land and property in the country can be taken or given away by the monarch at any time for any reason. The army and navy is under the personal contro...

    Constitutional monarchy

    A constitutional monarchy is a form of government that is usually a democracy and has a constitution, with the monarch as head of state. Either the monarch has to obey the laws like everyone else, or there are special laws that say what the monarch can and cannot do. The monarch usually can not decide their special laws on their own. There may be laws about whom the monarch's children can marry, for example, that are passed by the Parliament. For example, in the Netherlands, if a member of th...

    Today, there are three basic forms how to choose a new monarch, after the death of the old one; or because the old monarch left power: 1. There is an order of succession. Usually, someone from the same family will be the new monarch 2. A number of people elect the new monarch 3. The old monarch has appointed someone who will become the next monarch Of these three, the order of succession is the most common case. Countries, where the monarchs are elected include Malaysia, Samoa, Cambodia, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, and Vatican City.

  10. List of current monarchies - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_current_monarchies
    • Types of Monarchy
    • Lines of Succession
    • Current Monarchies
    • Footnote

    These are the approximate categories which present monarchies fall into: 1. Commonwealth realms. Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch of sixteen Commonwealth realms (Antigua and Barbuda; the Commonwealth of Australia; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Canada; Grenada; Jamaica; New Zealand; the Independent State of Papua New Guinea; the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Solomon Islands; Tuvalu; and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). They evolved out of the British Empire into fully independent states within the Commonwealth of Nationsthat retain the Queen as head of state, unlike other Commonwealth countries that are either dependencies, republics or have a different royal house. All sixteen realms are constitutional monarchies and full democracies, where the Queen has limited powers or a largely ceremonial role. 2. Other European constitutional monarchies. 2.1. The Principality of Andorra; the Ki...

    Some of the extant sovereign monarchies have lines of succession that go back to the medieval period or antiquity: 1. The kings of Cambodia claim descent from Queen Soma (1st century), although the historiographical record is interrupted in the "Post-Angkor Period" (15th/16th centuries). A real unified kingdom of Cambodiafirst came to existence in 802. The monarchy in Cambodia was abolished between 1970 and 1993. 2. There exist several suggestions on a possible line of succession in the Danish monarchy from the late 7th century and until Gorm the Old, but none of these suggestions have so far won universal acceptance. Most monarchs in Denmark since the 940s have been descendants of Gorm the Old's father Harthacnut and all monarchs in Denmark since 1047 have been descendants of titular Queen Estrid Svendsdatter. A formal law of succession was not adopted in Denmark until 1665. 3. Japan, considered a constitutional monarchy under the Imperial House of Japan, is traditionally said to h...

    In Wallis and Futuna, an overseas territory of France in the South Pacific, there are three kingdoms, Uvea, Alo and Sigave, whose monarchs are chosen by local noble families.

    ^1 Belgium is the only existing popular monarchy – a system in which the monarch's title is linked to the people rather than a state. The title of Belgian kings is not King of Belgium, but instead King of the Belgians. Another unique feature of the Belgian system is that the new monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath. ^2 Basic Law of Saudi Arabia

  11. July Monarchy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › July_Monarchy
    • Overview
    • Background
    • Initial Period
    • The Laffitte Government
    • The Casimir Perier Government
    • The Consolidation of The Regime
    • Evolution Towards Parliamentarianism
    • The Guizot Government
    • End of The Monarchy
    • See Also

    Louis Phillipe was pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris; the republicans, who had set up barricades in the capital; and the liberal bourgeoisie. However, at the end of his reign, the so-called "Citizen King" was overthrown by similar citizen uprisings and use of barricades during the February Revolution of 1848. This resulted in the proclamation of the Second Republic. After Louis-Philippe's ousting and subsequent exile to Britain, the liberal Orleanist faction (opposed by the counter-revolutionary Legitimists) continued to support a return of the House of Orléans to the throne. But the July Monarchy proved to be the last Bourbon-Orleans monarchy of France (although monarchy was re-established under Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew, who reigned as Napoleon IIIfrom 1852 to 1870). The Legitimists withdrew from politics to their castles, leaving the way open for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans. The July Monarchy (1830–1848) is generally see...

    Following the ouster of Napoléon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. The ensuing period, the Bourbon Restoration, was characterized by conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics. The relatively moderate Comte de Provence, brother of the deposed-and-executed Louis XVI, ruled as Louis XVIII from 1814 to 1824 and was succeeded by his more conservative younger brother, the former Comte d'Artois, ruling as Charles Xfrom 1824. Despite the return of the House of Bourbon to power, France was much changed from the era of the ancien régime. The egalitarianism and liberalism of the revolutionaries remained an important force and the autocracy and hierarchy of the earlier era could not be fully restored. Economic changes, which had been underway long before the revolution, had progressed further during the years of turmoil and were firmly entrenched by 1815. These changes had seen power s...

    The symbolic establishment of the new regime

    On 7 August 1830, the 1814 Charter was revised. The preamble reviving the Ancien Régime was suppressed, and the King of France became the "King of the French", (also known as the "Citizen King") establishing the principle of national sovereignty over the principle of the divine right. The new Charter was a compromise between the Doctrinaires opposition to Charles X and the Republicans. Laws enforcing Catholicism and censorship were repealed and the revolutionary tricolor flagre-established. L...

    A permanent disorder

    Civil unrest continued for three months, supported by the left-wing press. Louis-Philippe's government was not able to put an end to it, mostly because the National Guard was headed by one of the Republican leaders, the marquis de La Fayette, who advocated a "popular throne surrounded by Republican institutions." The Republicans then gathered themselves in popular clubs, in the tradition established by the 1789 Revolution. Some of those were fronts for secret societies (for example, the Blanq...

    Purge of the Legitimists

    Meanwhile, the government expelled from the administration all Legitimist supporters who refused to pledge allegiance to the new regime, leading to the return to political affairs of most of the personnel of the First Empire, who had themselves been expelled during the Second Restoration. This renewal of political and administrative staff was humorously illustrated by a vaudeville of Jean-François Bayard. The Minister of the Interior, Guizot, re-appointed the entire prefectoral administration...

    Although Louis-Philippe strongly disagreed with the banker Laffitteand secretly pledged to the duke of Broglie that he would not support him at all, the new President of the Council was tricked into trusting his king. The trial of Charles X's former ministers took place from 15 to 21 December 1830 before the Chamber of Peers, surrounded by rioters demanding their death. They were finally sentenced to life detention, accompanied by civil death for Polignac. La Fayette's National Guard maintained public order in Paris, affirming itself as the bourgeois watchdog of the new regime, while the new Interior Minister, Camille de Montalivet, kept the ministers safe by detaining them in the fort of Vincennes. But by demonstrating the National Guard's importance, La Fayette had made his position delicate, and he was quickly forced to resign. This led to the Minister of Justice Dupont de l'Eure's resignation. In order to avoid exclusive dependence on the National Guard, the "Citizen King" charg...

    Having succeeded in outdoing the Parti du Mouvement, the "Citizen King" called to power the Parti de la Résistance. However, Louis-Philippe was not really much more comfortable with one side than with the other, being closer to the center. Furthermore, he felt no sympathy for its leader, the banker Casimir Perier, who replaced Laffitte on 13 March 1831 as head of the government. His aim was more to re-establish order in the country, letting the Parti de la Résistanceassume responsibility for unpopular measures. Perier, however, managed to impose his conditions on the king, including the pre-eminence of the President of the Council over other ministers, and his right to call cabinet councils outside of the actual presence of the king. Furthermore, Casimir Perier secured agreement that the liberal Prince Royal, Ferdinand-Philippe d'Orléans, would cease to participate to the Council of Ministers. Despite this, Perier valued the king's prestige, calling on him, on 21 September 1831, to...

    King Louis-Philippe was not unhappy to see Casimir Perier withdraw from the political scene, as he complained that Perier took all the credit for the government's policy successes, while he himself had to assume all the criticism for its failures.The "Citizen King" was therefore not in any hurry to find a new President of the Council, all the more since the Parliament was in recess and that the troubled situation demanded swift and energetic measures. Indeed, the regime was being attacked on all sides. The Legitimist duchess of Berry attempted an uprising in spring 1832 in Provence and Vendée, a stronghold of the ultra-royalists, while the Republicans headed an insurrection in Paris on 5 June 1832, on the occasion of the funeral of one of their leaders, General Lamarque, also struck dead by the cholera. General Mouton crushed the rebellion. The scene was later depicted by Victor Hugo in Les Misérables. This double victory, over both the Carlists Legitimists and the Republicans, was...

    The polemics which led to Marshal Mortier's resignation, fueled by monarchists such as Baron Massias and the Count of Roederer, all turned around the question of parliamentary prerogative. On the one hand, Louis-Philippe wanted to be able to follow his own policy, in particular in "reserved domains" such as military affairs or diplomacy. As the head of state, he also wanted to be able to lead the government, if need be by bypassing the President of the Council. On the other hand, a number of the deputies stated that the ministers needed a leader commanding a parliamentary majority, and thus wanted to continue the evolution towards parliamentarism which had only been sketched out in the Charter of 1830. The Charter did not include any mechanism for the political accountability of ministers towards the Chamber (confidence motions or for censorship motions). Furthermore, the function of the President of the Council itself was not even set out in the Charter.

    When Louis-Philippe called to power Guizot and the Doctrinaires, representatives of the center-right, after the center-left Thiers, he surely imagined that this would be only temporary, and that he would soon be able to call back Molé. But the new cabinet formed by Guizot would remain closely knit, and finally win the king's trust, with Guizotbecoming his favorite president of the Council. On 26 October 1840, Guizot arrived to Paris from London. He took for himself the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and let Soult assume the nominal presidency. This satisfied the king and the royal family, while Guizot himself was sure of his ability to manipulate the old Marshal Soult as he wished. As the center-left had refused to remain in the government, Guizot's cabinet included only conservatives, ranging from the ministerial center to the center-right Doctrinaires. The July Column was erected in honor of the 1830 Revolution. The Middle East Question was settled by the London Straits Convention of...

    After some unrest, the king replaced Guizot by Thiers who advocated repression. Greeted with hostility by the troops in the Place du Carrousel, in front of the Tuileries Palace, the king finally decided to abdicate in favor of his grandson, Philippe d'Orléans, entrusting the regency to his daughter-in-law, Hélène de Mecklembourg-Schwerin. His gesture was in vain as the Second Republic was proclaimed on 26 February 1848, on the Place de la Bastille, before the July Column. Louis-Philippe, who claimed to be the "Citizen King" linked to the country by a popular sovereignty contract on which he founded his legitimacy, did not see that the French people were advocating an enlargement of the electorate, either by a decrease of the electoral tax threshold, or by the establishment of universal suffrage[citation needed]. Although the end of the July Monarchy brought France to the brink of civil war, the period was also characterized by an effervescence of artistic and intellectual creation.